Volume 8, Issue 3, September 2020, Page: 54-60
Electrolyte Levels Analysis on Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Noongan Regional General Hospital, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Diana Shintawati Purwanto, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia; Department of Clinical Laboratory, R. D Kandou Central General Hospital, Manado, Indonesia
Yanti Meilen Mewo, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia
Edmond Leonard Jim, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia
Richardo Jordan Laloan, Clinical Clerkship Program, Faculty of Medicine, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia
Hessyani Patrisia Theodora Raranta, Department of Clinical Laboratory, R. D Kandou Central General Hospital, Manado, Indonesia
Billy Johnson Kepel, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia
Received: Oct. 16, 2020;       Accepted: Nov. 16, 2020;       Published: Nov. 19, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijde.20200504.11      View  9      Downloads  9
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia caused by defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both, that affect the action of insulin on the target tissue. North Sulawesi is in the top 5 of 34 provinces in Indonesia with the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus, based on the results of the 2018 Basic Health Research. The relationship between blood glucose and electrolytes is very complex, so there are still few studies looking for the relationship between the two in diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to find out the association between electrolytes levels (serum sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium) and fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-September 2020 at Noongan Regional Hospital, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Demographic data including age, sex, symptoms, and oral anti-diabetic medication/insulin administration were collected, and then physical examination including body mass index was carried out. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Spearman Rank tests were used for statistical analysis. There is an inverse correlation between fasting blood glucose and serum sodium, chloride, and magnesium, but not significant. As for potassium, there is a direct correlation, but also not significant. In conclusion, only potassium has a positive correlation with fasting blood glucose, while other electrolytes have a negative correlation, however all of correlations are not significant.
Keywords
Diabetes Mellitus, Electrolyte, Blood Glucose
To cite this article
Diana Shintawati Purwanto, Yanti Meilen Mewo, Edmond Leonard Jim, Richardo Jordan Laloan, Hessyani Patrisia Theodora Raranta, Billy Johnson Kepel, Electrolyte Levels Analysis on Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Noongan Regional General Hospital, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, Advances in Biochemistry. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp. 54-60. doi: 10.11648/j.ijde.20200504.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Alberti, KG., Zimmet, PZ. Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications. Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus Provisional Report of A WHO Consultation. Diabet Med. 1998; Vol. 15 (7): p. 539-553.
[2]
American Diabetes Association. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2020. Diabetes Care. 2020; Vol. 43 (1): p. S14-S31.
[3]
Khan, RN., Saba, F., Kausar, SF., Siddiqui, MH. Pattern of Electrolyte Imbalance in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Experience from A Tertiary Care Hospital. Pak J Med Sci. 2019; Vol. 35 (3): p. 797-801.
[4]
Wei, D., Liu, X., Jiang, J., Tu, R., Qiao, D., Li, R., et al. Mineralocorticoids, Glucose Homeostasis and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Henan Rural Cohort study. J Diabetes Complications. 2020: Vol. 34 (5): p. 107558.
[5]
Pamungkas, RA., Chamroonsawasdi, K. Self-Management Based Coaching Program to Improve Diabetes Mellitus Self-Management Practice and Metabolic Markers Among Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia: A Quasiexperimental Study. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020; Vol. 14: p. 53-61.
[6]
Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS). Prevalensi Diabetes Melitus Berdasarkan Diagnosis Dokter pada Penduduk Semua Umur Menurut Provinsi. Kementerian Kesehatan RI Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. 2018; p. 67-68.
[7]
Valarmathi, A., Sastri, L. Evaluation of Electrolytes Level Imbalance as a Risk Factor for Chronic Complications in Diabetic Patients. Sch J App Med Sci. 2017; Vol. 5 (7E): p. 2934-2936.
[8]
Pragna, D. A Study of Serum Electrolyte Levels and Lipid Profile in Chronic Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Saudi J. Med. 2018; Vol. 3 (8): p. 477-481.
[9]
Datchinamoorthi, S., Vanaja, R., Rajagopalan, B. Evaluation of Serum Electrolytes in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2016; Vol. 40 (1): p. 251-253.
[10]
Arifin, B., Perwitasari, DA., Thobari, JA., Cao, Q., Krabbe, PFM., Postma, MJ. Translation, Revision, and Validation of the Diabetes Distress Scale for Indonesian Type 2 Diabetic Outpatients with Various Types of Complications. Value Health Reg Issues. 2017; Vol. 12C: p. 63-73.
[11]
Sinclair, AJ., Abdelhafiz, AH. Age, Frailty and Diabetes – Triple Jeopardy fot Vulnerability to COVID-19 Infection: Commentary. EClinicalMedicine. 2020; Vol. 22: p. 100334.
[12]
Sobers-Grannum, N., Murphy, MM., Nielsen, A., Guell, C., Samuels, TA., Bishop, L., et al. Female Gender Is a Social Determinant of Diabetes in the Caribbean: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE. 2015; Vol. 10 (5): p. e0126799.
[13]
Dedinská, I., Graňák, K., Vnučák, M., Skálová, P., Kováčiková, L., Laca, Ľ., et al. Role of Sex In Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus Development: Are Men and Women Equal? J Diabetes Complications. 2019; Vol. 33 (4): p. 315-322.
[14]
Casqueiro, J., Casqueiro, J., Alves, C. Infection in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Pathogenesis. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012; Vol. 16 (1): p. S27-S36.
[15]
Erener, S. Diabetes, Infectiom Risk and COVID-19: A Review. Mol Metab. 2020; Vol. 39: p. 101044.
[16]
Rajagambeeram, R., Malik, I., Vijayan, M., Gopal, N., Ranganadin, P. Evaluation of Serum Electrolytes and Their Relation to Glycemic Status in Patients with T2DM. Int J Clin Biochem Res. 2020; Vol. 7 (1): p. 130–133.
[17]
Karuppan, A., Sahay, MI., Ravindranathan, R., Haripriya, P., Sriram, DK., George, M. Electrolyte Disturbances Among Diabetic Patients Admitted in A Multi-Specialty Hospital in Southern India. J Clin Diagn Res. 2019; Vol. 13 (2): p. OC12-OC15.
[18]
Kanduker, S., Ahmed, R., Khondker, F., Aharama, A., Afrose, N., Chowdhury, MAA. Electrolyte Disturbance in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Bangladesh J Med Biochem 2017; Vol. 10 (1): p. 27-35.
[19]
Woyesa, SB., Gebisa, WC. Anshebo, DL. Assessment of Selected Serum Electrolyte and Associated Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2019; Vol. 12: p. 2811–2817.
[20]
Kataoka, H., Yoshida, Y. Enhancement of The Serum Chloride Concentration by Administration of Sodium– Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor and Its Mechanisms and Clinical Signifcance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Pilot Study. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2020; Vol. 12 (5): p. 1-7.
[21]
Palmer, BF., Clegg, DJ. Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disturbances in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2015; Vol. 37 (3): p. 548-559.
Browse journals by subject